Chemical Remediation

Chemical Remediation using: ISCO Remediation, ISCR Remediation, and Bioremediation

Remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater through the use of chemical reagents is effective for a variety of contaminants and geologic site conditions. Cascade offers both the expertise and technology for a wide range of options, including in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO remediation), in situ chemical reduction (ISCR remediation) and bioremediation.

ISCO is a technology appropriate for soil or groundwater remediation, and is applied by injecting chemical oxidants into the contaminated area. The oxidants destroy the contaminants, eliminating the need for removal.

The safe implementation of chemical oxidants requires specialized, compatible equipment and change management administrative controls. We have the capabilities to mix oxidants in small batches or through bulk feed systems. We have also developed injection tool strings that minimize exposure to our operators during injection. Based on hundreds of past chemical oxidation projects, Cascade has developed in-house capabilities to support our clients with dosing and distribution designs. This ensures contact while taking into consideration oxidant residence times, kinetics and site hydraulics. Our custom mixing and injection equipment offer safe and effective delivery for optimal contact with subsurface contaminants.

ISCR is a related remediation technology, and is also suited for addressing both soil and groundwater contamination. ISCR remediation is undertaken by injecting liquid chemically reductive additives to the contaminated area, or alternately by inserting chemical reductants in solid form in the path of the plume.

Chemical reduction, either by itself or utilized in a combined biotic remedy, provides the reactivity and persistence needed for effective treatment of metals and solvents in both source areas and plumes. Due to the physical characteristics of these chemistries, delivery to the subsurface is accomplished through injection, emplacement or shallow mixing. Cascade has supported numerous large projects associated with hexavalent chrome or chlorinated solvents groundwater contamination.

Maximize your return on remediation with Cascade. Our remediation experts provide design support for the effective dosing and distribution of chemical reagents. Cascade has applied all the commercially available reagent chemistries, and are product agnostic. We leverage economies of scale to work with a number of well-respected reagent suppliers to bring you the most and best application options.

Chemical remediation options include the following (and more):


  • Activated sodium persulfate
  • Permanganate (sodium and potassium)
  • Catalyzed hydrogen peroxide
  • A combination of any of the above


  • Zero valent iron (ZVI)
  • Emulsified (EZVI)
  • ZVI and carbon substrate combined remedies
  • Calcium polysulfide

ISCO and ISCR remediation options are available as standalone solutions, but can also be used in conjunction with thermal remediation, bioremediation and soil remediation on complex sites.

Last update of the article: 05/20/2020.

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